Deming’s 14 Principles


PRINCIPLE 1 : “Create a constancy of purpose”
Define the problems of today and the future
Allocate resources for long-term planning
Allocate resources for research and education
Constantly improve design of product and service

PRINCIPLE 2 : “Adopt the new philosophy”
Quality costs less not more
Superstitious learning
The call for major change
Stop looking at your competition and look at your customer instead

PRINCIPLE 3 : “Cease dependence on inspection”
Quality does not come from inspection
Mass inspection is unreliable, costly, and ineffective
Inspectors fail to agree with each other
Inspection should be used to collect data for process control

PRINCIPLE 4 : “Do not award business basedon price tag alone”
Price alone has no meaning
Change focus from lowest initial cost to lowest total cost
Work toward a single source and long term relationship
Establish a mutual confidence and aid between purchaser and vendor

PRINCIPLE 5 : “Improve constantly the system of production and service”
Quality starts with the intent of management
Teamwork in design is fundamental
Forever, continue to reduce waste and continue to improve
Putting out fires is not improvement of the process

PRINCIPLE 6 : “Institute training”
Management must provide the setting where workers can be successful
Management must remove the inhibitors to good work
Management needs an appreciation of variation
This is management’s new role.

PRINCIPLE 7: “Adopt and institute leadership”
Work standards
Meet specifications
Zero defects
Appraisal of performance
Replace with leadership

Leaders must:
Remove barriers to pride of workmanship
Know the work they supervise
Know the difference between special and common cause of variation

Principle 8 : “Drive out fear”
The common denominator of fear
The fear of knowledge
Performance appraisals
Management by fear or numbers

PRINCIPLE 9 : “Break barriers among staff areas”
Know your internal suppliers and customers
Promote team work

PRINCIPLE 10 : “Eliminate slogans, exhortations,and targets
They are directed at the wrong group
They generate frustration and resentment
Use posters that explain what management is doing to improve the work environment

PRINCIPLE 11 :”Eliminate numerical quotas”
They impede quality
They reduce production
A person’s job becomes meeting a quota

PRINCIPLE 12 : “Remove barriers”
Performance appraisal systems
Production rates
Financial management systems
Allow people to take pride in their workmanship

PRINCIPLE 13 :”Institute a program of education and self-improvement”
Commitment to lifelong employment
Overtime and education
Work with higher education of needs
Develop team building skills in children

PRINCIPLE 14 : “Take action to accomplish thetransformation”

Management must:
Struggle over the fourteen points
Take pride in the new philosophy
Include the critical mass of people in the change
Learn and use the Shewhart cycle


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